Top 20 Japanese Verbs to learn for Beginners

When I first started learning Japanese, I had no idea which verbs to learn. With that in mind, I have put together a list of 20 basic Japanese verbs to study.

For each verb, I have tried to give a brief overview of how they are used. This isn’t intended to be an in-depth guide, so if you want to learn more I recommend the resources listed at the end of this post.

The list below shows the verbs in the polite (-masu) form, but I have given the plain/dictionary form below. One good thing about Japanese is that there are very few irregular verbs (which all happen to be in this list!), and I have indicated these verbs below.

 

います imasu

Meaning: to be; exist (used for animate objects, ie. people and animals)

  • Verb type: ichidan (て form -> いて ite)
  • Plain/ dictionary form: いる iru
  • Kanji?: 居る (note: the kanji is not often used and you will most likely see it in hiragana only)
  • Often used with the particle を or に

Example sentences:

ねこはへやにいますneko wa heya ni imasu

The cat is in the room.

にわにいぬがいますniwa ni inu ga imasu

There is a dog in the garden.

あります arimasu

Meaning: to exist (used for inanimate objects, ie. those not ); to have

  • Verb type: godan (て form -> あって atte)
  • Plain/ dictionary form: ある aru
  • Kanji?: 有る・在る (note: the kanji is not often used and you will most likely see it in hiragana only)
  • Often used with the particle が or に (definitely not を!)

Example sentences:

ペンはつくえのうえにありますpen wa tsukue no ue ni arimasu

The pen is on top of the desk.

ほんがみっつありますhon ga mittsu arimasu

I have three books.

します shimasu

Meaning: to do

  • Irregular verb
  • Verb type: ichidan (て form -> して)
  • Plain/ dictionary form: する suru
  • Kanji?: none (always used with hiragana)
  • Often used with the particle を

Example sentences:

きのう、ともだちとテニスをしましたkinou, tomodachi to tenisu wo shimashita

I played tennis with my friends yesterday.

まいにちにほんごをべんきょうしますmainichi nihongo wo benkyou shimasu

I study Japanese every day.

いきます ikimasu

Meaning: to go

  • (Slightly) irregular verb; see て form conjugation
  • Verb type: godan (て form -> いって itte)
  • Plain/ dictionary form: いく iku
  • Kanji?: 行く
  • Often used with the particle に

Example sentences:

きょうがっこうにいきますkyou gakkou ni ikimasu

I am going to school today.

らいねんにほんにいきますrainen nihon ni ikimasu

I am going to Japan next year.

きます kimasu

Meaning: to come

  • Irregular verb
  • Verb type: godan (て form -> きて kite)
  • Plain/ dictionary form: くる kuru
  • Kanji?: 来る
  • Often used with the particle に

Example sentences:

BABYMETALはよくアメリカにきますBabymetal wa yoku amerika ni kimasu

Babymetal often come to America.

ともだちがいえにきましたtomodachi ga ie ni kimashita

A friend came to my house.

なります narimasu

Meaning: to become

  • Verb type: godan (て form -> なって natte)
  • Plain/ dictionary form: なる naru
  • Kanji?: 成る (note: the kanji not often used and you will most likely see it in hiragana only)
  • Often used with the particle に

Example sentences:

もうすぐはるになりますmousugu haru ni narimasu

It will soon be(come) spring.

せんせいになりたいです。 sensei ni naritai desu

I want to become a teacher.

みます mimasu

Meaning: to see, look at

  • Verb type: ichidan (て form -> みて mite)
  • Plain/ dictionary form: みる miru
  • Kanji?: 見る
  • Often used with the particle を

Example sentences:

かのじょがテレビをみますwatashi ga terebi wo mimasu

She watches TV.

しゃしんをみてください。 shashin wo mite kudasai

Please look at the photograph.

はなします hanashimasu

Meaning: to speak, to talk to

  • Verb type: ichidan (て form -> はなして hanashite)
  • Plain/ dictionary form: はなす hanasu
  • Kanji?: 話す
  • Often used with the particle を or と

Example sentences:

でんわでははとはなしますdenwa de haha to hanashimasu

I speak with my mom on the telephone.

えいごとスペインごをはなしますeigo to supeingo wo hanashimasu

I speak English and Spanish.

あいます aimasu

Meaning: to meet

  • Verb type: godan (て form -> あって atte)
  • Plain/ dictionary form: あう au
  • Kanji?: 会う
  • Often used with the particle に

Example sentences:

あしたえきでともだちにあいますashita eki de tomodachi ni aimasu

Tomorrow I will meet my friend at the train station.

らいしゅうかれにあいたいです。 raishuu kare ni aitai desu

I want to meet him next week.

つくります tsukurimasu

Meaning: to make

  • Verb type: godan (て form -> つくって tsukutte)
  • Plain/ dictionary form: つくる tsukuru
  • Kanji?: 作る
  • Often used with the particle を

Example sentences:

ばんごはんをつくりますbangohan wo tsukurimasu

I make dinner.

ちちがわたしにドレスをつくりましたchichi ga watashi ni doresu wo tsukurimashita

My dad made me a dress.

つかいます tsukaimasu

Meaning: to use

  • Verb type: godan (て form -> つかって tsukatte)
  • Plain/ dictionary form: つかう tsukau
  • Kanji?: 使う
  • Often used with the particle を

Example sentences:

せんせいのじしょをつかいますSensei no jisho wo tsukaimasu

I use my teacher’s dictionary.

あねはくつにおかねをたくさんつかいますAne ha kutsu ni okane wo takusan tsukaimasu

My older sister spends a lot of money on shoes.

わかります wakarimasu

Meaning: to know, understand

  • Verb type: godan (て form -> わかって wakatte)
  • Plain/ dictionary form: わかる wakaru
  • Kanji?: 分かる (note: kanji is not often used, and you will most likely see it written in hiragana
  • Often used with the particle を or が

Example sentences:

にほんごをすこしわかりますnihongo wo sukoshi wakarimasu

I understand a bit of Japanese.

フランスごがわかりませんfuransugo wo wakarimasen

I don’t know/ understand French.

たべます tabemasu

Meaning: to eat

  • Verb type: godan (て form -> たべて)
  • Plain/ dictionary form: たべる taberu
  • Kanji?: 食べる
  • Often used with the particle を

Example sentences:

まいしゅうピザをたべますmaishuu piza wo tabemasu

I eat pizza every week.

ゆうべラーメンをたべましたyuube raamen wo tabemashita

I ate ramen yesterday evening.

のみます nomimasu

Meaning: to drink

  • Verb type: godan (て form -> のんで nonde)
  • Plain/ dictionary form: のむ nomu
  • Kanji?: 飲む
  • Often used with the particle を

Example sentences:

さけをのみませんsake wo nomimasen

I do not drink alcohol.

まいあさ、みずをのみますmaiasa mizu wo nomimasu

I drink water every morning.

かいます kaimasu

Meaning: to buy

  • Verb type: godan (て form -> かって katte)
  • Plain/ dictionary form: かう kau
  • Kanji?: 買う
  • Often used with the particle を

Example sentences:

スーパーでやさいをかいますsuupaa de yasai wo kaimasu

I buy vegetables at the supermarket.

しんぶんをかいませんshinbun wo kaimasen

I don’t buy newspapers.

かきます kakimasu

Meaning: to write

  • Verb type: godan (て form -> かいて kaite)
  • Plain/ dictionary form: かく kaku
  • Kanji?: 書く
  • Often used with the particle を

Example sentences:

まいしゅうかんじをかきますmaishuu kanji wo kakimasu

I write kanji every week.

しょうせつをかいていますshousetsu wo kaiteimasu

I am writing a novel.

ねます nemasu

Meaning: to sleep

  • Verb type: ichidan (て form -> ねて nete)
  • Plain/ dictionary form: ねる neru
  • Kanji?: 寝る
  • Often used with the particle を

Example sentences:

まいにち10じにねますmainichi juuji ni nemasu

I go to bed at 10 o’clock every day.

きのう7じにねましたkinou shichi ji nemashita

Yesterday I went to bed at 7 o’clock

ききます kikimasu

Meaning: to listen to

  • Verb type: godan (て form -> きいて kiite)
  • Plain/ dictionary form: きく
  • Kanji?: 聞く
  • Often used with the particle を

Example sentences:

せいとはせんせいのしじにききますseito wa sensei no shiji ni kikimasu

The pupils listen to the teacher’s instructions.

おんがくをよくききます。 Ongaku wo yoku kikimasu

I often listen to music.

かえります kaerimasu

Meaning: to return home

  • Verb type: godan (て form -> かえって kaette)
  • Plain/ dictionary form: かえる kaeru
  • Kanji?: 帰る
  • Often used with the particle に

Example sentences:

あしたイギリスにかえりますashita igirusu ni kaerimasu

I will go back to the UK tomorrow.

きのうごご10じにうちにかえりましたkinou gogo juuji ni uchi ni kaerimashita

I got home at 10 pm yesterday.

のります norimasu

Meaning: to get on, ride (eg. a vehicle)

  • Verb type: godan (て form -> のって)
  • Plain/ dictionary form: のる noru
  • Kanji?: 乗る
  • Often used with the particle に

Example sentences:

まいあさでんしゃにのりますmaiasa densha ni norimasu

I catch the train every morning.

どこでバスをのりますか。 doko de basu ni norimasu ka?

Where do you get on the bus?

20basicjapaneseverbspin

So this is my list – choosing just 20 is tricky, but I think with the above you will be able to practice expressing a variety of things in Japanese.

If you are just starting your Japanese journey, I recommend looking at the following resources to learn more about the different types of Japanese verbs and how they are conjugated:

New to Japanese? You might find my Japanese Resources Masterpost and How to Start Learning Japanese pages useful 🙂

0 thoughts on “Top 20 Japanese Verbs to learn for Beginners

  1. Evelina says:

    Thank you for putting this together! Sometimes verb lists are long and overwhelming, but this is manageable and will help me learn basic Japanese

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