Studying using sentences is incredibly beneficial for studying any language for a couple of reasons:
- It gets you used to sentence structure, which you can then adapt to use when speaking or writing
- Helps you to learn vocabulary in context – important for words with similar meanings in your native language
This article from Fluent in 3 Months explains it better than I can, but the brain is good at spotting at remembering patterns. As we are learning to speak our first language, we hear sentences spoken by others around us and so we build up a bank of sentences for our native language(s) in our brains.
This is why it is very easy for us to spot when something sounds unnatural in our native language(s), even if we are not sure why. With learning a new language, we have to follow the same process of learning what phrases and sentences are natural or not.
Studying sentences alongside grammar rules will help the grammar to stick in your mind more effectively. Once you’ve understood a grammar point, you can then focus on making sure that you can implement in in your own speaking/writing – which is why I think keeping a journal in Japanese is such a good idea.
Let’s say for example that you are studying counters in Japanese, and come across the counter ‘hai’ which is the counter for glasses.
If you also memorise the sentence [ビールを三杯ください/ ビールをさんばいください/bi-ru wo sanbai kudasai] meaning Please can I have three glasses of beer, you are not only memorising the counter ‘-杯/はい/hai’ but internalising several other Japanese grammar rules at the same time.
- That after 三, -はい becomes ばい
- That counters are used after the particle を
- That ください can be used when making a request (especially when ordering food and drink)
You can then experiment with substituting in different vocabulary, for example using a different number with the same counter…
ビールを一杯 (いっぱい/ippai) ください
Or you can change the counter itself…
ビールを三本 (さんぼん/sanbon) ください
(Just like with -はい, the -ほん counter has a sound change to -ぼん when following 三).
Or you can change the drink to something else…
水 (みず/Mizu) を三杯ください
(NB: probably a good idea if you’ve been ordering beer all evening)
… and this is all by changing just one word in the original phrase we learnt!
With Japanese, context is key to understanding grammar and vocabulary, so I believe that studying using sentences is more important coming from English. Adding Japanese audio in the mix is even better for learning to distinguish similar words, especially as Japanese has different pitch accents for similar words.
So how can I implement this into my language study?
With new grammar points, try writing out an example sentence you already know to be correct, then try changing different vocabulary as in the example above. You can always ask on an app like HiNative or a friend to check your new sentences to make sure they still make sense.
When learning across new vocab, look the word up in a dictionary or ask a friend to give you an example of how that word is used in a sentence and write it down for review later.
When making your own flashcards (real or online), make sure to write these sentences together with the vocabulary. If you are using Anki for vocabulary study, you’ll notice that a lot of decks introduce sentences at the same time.
I also highly recommend Delvin Language, which offers sentence and listening practice at the same time!
You can learn new vocabulary via sentences taken from real life speech in dramas and documentaries, with all furigana and meanings provided for words and grammar points you may not know yet.
I hope the above post has helped – if you have any questions or suggestions please let me know in the comments!
Japanese sign image source: with attribution By Info2Learn (Own work) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC BY-SA 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], via Wikimedia Commons